Alto ventos est coeptis utque fecit. Phoebe sine circumfuso arce. Tanto aliis. Matutinis cornua origo formaeque animal mundo. Chaos: fabricator. Natura mundo caesa addidit. Cuncta habendum meis omni ille formaeque emicuit septemque et. Lege fecit aethere porrexerat gentes horrifer formas.

Alto ventos est coeptis utque fecit. Phoebe sine circumfuso arce. Tanto aliis. Matutinis cornua origo formaeque animal mundo. Chaos: fabricator. Natura mundo caesa addidit. Cuncta habendum meis omni ille formaeque emicuit septemque et. Lege fecit aethere porrexerat gentes horrifer formas.

Alto ventos est coeptis utque fecit. Phoebe sine circumfuso arce. Tanto aliis. Matutinis cornua origo formaeque animal mundo. Chaos: fabricator. Natura mundo caesa addidit. Cuncta habendum meis omni ille formaeque emicuit septemque et. Lege fecit aethere porrexerat gentes horrifer formas.

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On July 27, , the Council of Ten declares itself: The Ten further declare that in all petitions for separation the canonical grounds must be set forth clearly and with precision. They also require to be precisely informed of the faults alleged by each party against the other, so that, should those faults amount to breaches of law, the accused may be com- mitted for trial, though the ecclesiastical procedure shall still continue its course.

Arch, di Stato, Cons, dei X, Comune, n. X, Cons, e Mem. It is worth noting that the Consultori considered divorce a less evil than too easy separation. Every time a marriage is declared void through the ignorance or wickedness of the contracting parties what evils inevitably follow I A sacrament profaned, oaths taken before the altar broken, religion offended, two persons who had vowed to love one another for ever rendered foes, the aim of matrimony deluded, the interests, honour, and peace of a family ruined, the preservation and education of offspring im- perilled, public morals damaged, in short, the most essential interests of THE FAMILY IN ITS CUSTOMS 3 7 check divorce suits which ' ' destroy the interests, honour, and peace of families.

Some few patrician families preserved their patrimony by a wise adminis- tration, 2 but many more purchased the appearance of aristocratic luxury at the price of financial disaster.

Whole fortunes were eaten up in clothes, extravagances, gaming, and pleasures. Their vanity would not allow them to acquire fresh riches by trade and industry or by cutting down superfluous expenses, and many a noble family light-heartedly squandered the savings of its ancestors. The wife's property was usually admin- istered apart from the husband's, and it was customary Church and State infringed. And this appalling series of misfortunes is augmented in the case of separation, which is the more pernicious as it is the more frequent ; for separation does not give back to the parties their original liberty and thus allow them to remarry, but holds them apart and yet united, it relaxes the bond but does not break it, while it holds two young lives to an involuntary celibacy and exposes them to a continual neglect of their duties, breeding implacable enmity and sometimes the extinction of an illustrious race.

Arch, di Stato, Gapi Cons. The document is entitled Bilanzo dello scosso e speso fatto per conto delta N. Andriana Grimani Lin sopra le rendite in essa pervenute doppo la morte del N. Michiel Angela Lin The income from rents in town and country, and interest on capital amounted to lire , I have selected the following items of expenditure, as they chiefly affect the housekeeping: A Salariati diversi L.

All' Esattor Scarpa L. Alii Padri Teatini per anniversario. Mortgages burdened their house property, and creditors clamoured for payment. These loans were one of the chief causes of the sudden ruin of many families at the fall of the Republic ; when Napoleon suppressed the monasteries, he fore- closed the mortgages, and the nobles had to part with their estates at wretched prices to satisfy the govern- ment, which would not wait.

And this ruinous care- lessness could not be counteracted by the curious niggardliness occasionally to be met with, false economy which permitted squandering on mere outward show ' In Mobili, cioe una Todeschina, e L. Spese per conti diversi L. Even in their wills, where, as a rule, the human spirit is apt to show itself in its true colours, the gulf between patrician and plebeian is strongly marked. Faithful servants are usually pen- sioned, it is true, but never or rarely do they receive any little memento to remind them of their master, just as though their birth and education debarred them from the finer feelings.

For instance, a Dolfin spent thousands of lire on a hot-house for his country-seat, but tried to recoup himself by cutting down the gardener's wages. The Dogaressa Mocenigo, in , consented to act as godmother to the daughter of the Governor of Gordignano, but she let him know that he must be content with bare honour, as she had no intention of making a present.

Yet it was the same Mocenigo family that spent forty thousand lire over the fetes for the election of Pietro as Procurator of San Marco. Item doi coltre, una bianca ed una di color, bone. Item doi filzade, cioe una di griso rosso, et una bianca da Roma, bone. On the other hand, if the patricians of senatorial rank behaved harshly and proudly towards the im- poverished nobility or towards the rich citizens whom the needs of the State had raised to the patriciate, they did not disdain to treat the people with famil- iarity, being assured that the lower classes would never presume to take advantage of such condescension.

And it frequently happened that a noble would accept the position and relationship of godfather to a child of the people. Fu stabilito pel battesimo il dopo pranzo. Barba Nicolo alle ore aa circa venne da me vestito da gala con superbo tabarro bleu, ch' egli conservava con es- trema diligenza e che in tre anni non aveva mai toccato pioggia. II tempo era minaccioso ed io glieP ho pronosticato. Rispose negativamente e ci ponemmo in viaggio per Castello.

Pervenuti a mezza strada comincio a piovigginare, egli affrettava il passo, ed io ridevo fra me ; fattasi poi pioggia dirotta, diedesi a gambe, dicendo che si affrettava, affine di avvertire che recassero il bambino in barca per tradurlo in chiesa. Passarono alcuni mo- menti e me Io vidi ricomparire con tabarro ordinarissimo e con altro cap- pello.

Gompiuto il ceremoniale vollero a tutta forza che mi recassi dalla puerpera e ci andai. La trovai in istanzetta decente, in buon letto, con lenzuola di buona tela di bucato, e cuscini con guarnizione e merletti. Era vestita di bianco con cuffia in testa e parecchi anelli nelledita.

Fatti alcuni semplici e lieti discorsi con la puerpera, e quei della casa intervenuti nella camera, sopraggiunto il canonico che battezzo, ci portarono acqua di cedro, cafle con guantiera che sembrava d'argento e varie maniere di ciambelle.

Finalmente giunse il cipro, che si disse squisito, ma io non ne bevetti. Mi trattenni alcun poco ancora, indi mi licenziai dalla brigata. Patricians would also act as sponsors for converted Jews who would assume their godfather's name. Hence the frequency of patrician names among the people.

Whoever failed to do so was held all but a parricide and despicable as a coward. The attitude of the patricians was suggested to them by political and social reasons rather than by kindly feeling ; but the result was the same, namely, a close bond of union between the nobles and the people.

There was no haughty com- mand on the one side, no servile obedience on the other, but rather a kind of rivalry in giving orders gently and in carrying them out cheerfully. At the close of the Seicento a foreigner observes with surprise that ' ' liberty is so great throughout the entire domains of the Republic that a master has not the right to thrash his valet" 1 ; and in truth there were but few cases in which we find an insolent noble so far for- getting himself as to strike an inferior.

This familiarity between the two classes, which in reality were so profoundly divided, permitted even of practical joking. Benigna, in his Memorie, gives us an example. The Loggetta of the Campanile, when it was not being used by the Procurators on guard during sittings of the Great Council, was intrusted to the bell- ringer for his private use. One day in February, , the Procurator, Girolamo Giustinian, begged the bell- ringer to grant him the loan of the terrace on the top of the Loggetta, whence he and his friends might wit- ness the show of Maundy Thursday.

The bell-ringer replied that as he paid the rent he intended to keep the Loggetta for his own use ; to which his Excellency retorted, ' ' You are quite right ; you are master of the 1 Payen, Les Voy.

A ma- licious foreigner observes with sardonic pleasure that, on the broglio, by the doors of the Palace, those who in the Senate chamber had sued for favours and been re- fused were welcomed with embraces and kisses by the 1 Benigna, Mem. La Republique de Venise agit envers ses citoyens comme une mere tendre, mais severe, qui veut accabler ses enfants de bienfaits, et qui cependant, jalouse de son autorite", ne leur permet point de penetrer dans ses desseins.

I membri di un' aristocrazia non possono essere suscettibili di questi teneri sentimenti, perche la loro rivalita nella magistratura li rende insensibili ad ogni altra cosa, e per conseguenza alle dolcezze dell' amicizia.

A high conception of the greatness of their state was rooted in the minds of the patricians, but rather as a matter of personal pride than as a source of counsel and aid against doubt and weakness.

The malicious observer quoted above tells us how a Senator, finding his son reading the history of France, took the book from his hands, exclaiming, " You blockhead, study the history of your own Republic, and leave the rest alone.

Such distinguished personages as Marco Foscarini and Paolo Renier were not above using bribery to secure election to the Dukedom, though in their case the motive was a noble desire to dedicate themselves to their country's service, whereas in others it was the merest personal vanity, and they fulfilled their constitu- 1 Amelot de la Houssaye, Hist, du Gouv.

The earlier Venetians, vigorous in character, sought their fortunes where they could find them, but their flaccid descendants, finding all the com- forts of life secured to them by the toil of their ances- tors, abandoned themselves to the silence and the quiet of their native city; they ate punctually, made love with- out passion, and begat children who repeated the lives of their parents.

But this feverish activity could not cloak the enfeeblement of spirit and of moral fibre. Beckford, the Englishman, for example, tells us of Senators who, after addressing the House, tak- ing a walk in the Piazza, passing from one gambling- saloon to another till dawn, would take to the gondola, 1 Giovanni Pindemonte, enrolled in the Venetian patriciate, says: Pregai curto, Pregai cwto, ed e cagione di tal letizia il potersi piu tosto alle lor gozzoviglie restituire.

At eleven the Great Council met; they would don their robe and periwig, and rush off to the Palace. But all this activity, which, even if fruitless, would still be an indication of vitality, did not deceive the acute English observer. These brief moments of a false and morbid activity were due to an effort of nerves exhausted by antecedent debauch ; the need for restorative slumber, combated by an im- moderate indulgence in coffee, rendered the Venetians feeble and flaccid, and the temptation to abandon them- selves to the ease of the gondola fostered this indolence, which was almost as marked as among the orientals, who, thanks to their abuse of opiates and the harem, pass their lives in a perpetual stupor.

In early Venice the mixture, first with the Romans then with the Greeks, helped the development of the race ; but as time went on, it began to feel the evil consequences of that intimate conjunction inside each social class in the State, imposed on it both by its rigidly aristocratic or- ganization and by the nature of its site, which pre- vented permanent immigration or emigration.

During the closing years of the Republic, when the habit of making large dowries was beginning to tell on family estates, it became the custom to make matrimonial alli- ances only with families who could give as much as they received ; this led to frequent marriages between persons not only of the same social caste, but also of the same stock, 2 and this was the chief cause of the degeneration of the race.

Certain physical and mental qualities of the ancient aristocracy were transmitted, it is true ; the 1 Beckford, Italy, cit. Some of the nobles still pre- served that imprint of severity which distinguishes the portraits by Titian and Veronese 1 ; and this exterior aspect was not entirely belied by the inner character, for the Venetian patriciate had not fallen so low but that it could furnish examples of moral and intellectual worth, even in its last years. Religious sentiment, which if sincere, has a powerful effect on the life of a nation, had little virtue now to correct and raise the general tone.

So intimate a part does the supernatural play in the life of a people that we find all the great republics of the Middle Ages obeying the instinct to create a national saint ; as at Genoa they chose St.

George, so at Venice they selected St. Mark, and the Lion of the Evangelist gathered and guarded under his wing all the glories of the lagoon Republic. But a people which has accepted a single religion is apt to decline along with the decline and corruption of that cult; the efficacy of the religious 1 Moore, Lettres d'un voyag. And even scurrilous Goudar, in his Espion Chinois, after noting the vices of the nobles, is forced to conclude thus: The forms of Ca- tholicism grew old in their immobility, nor did the reactionary discipline of the Council of Trent avail to lend them fresh vigour.

Throughout Italy the religious sense, which purifies the spirit and strengthens the domestic affections, was gradually dying, and its place was being taken by that attitude of hypocrisy which marks the Seicento. There were still to be found faithful souls who laid to rest the doubts, the pains, the bitternesses of life, in the bosom of their active belief, and religion was univer- sally recognised as the bond of public order; but for many religion was confined to outward ceremonies and superstitious observances.

In Venice religion, with its churches and its magnificent functions, had grown material and appealed more to the senses than to the heart. And another foreigner writes: Devotion, especially among the upper classes, was the easy way to obtain pardon for every kind of error, and indulgence for excesses in love and in gambling.

Bigotry, void of faith, was easily satisfied with external observances. De La Lande tells the story of an Englishman who, going into a church, omitted to kneel at the elevation ; whereupon a Senator courteously took him to task. The Englishman replied that he did not believe in transubstantiation. Quindi, si proibisce 1'uso d'instrumenti bellici, come sono trombe, tamburi et simili, piu accomodati ad usarsi negli esserciti che nella casa di Dio ; similmente si obligano li musici tutti, cosi ecclesiastic!

Peu de personnes observent mieux 1'exterieur de la Religion que les Italiens en general, et les Veni- tiens en particulier. On peut dire d'eux, qu'ils passent une partie de leur vie a mal faire, e 1'autre a en demander pardon a Dieu. Ai perdoni se va per far bordelo La messa serve per andar a spasso. Even among the upper classes could still be found nobles who believed in the philosopher's stone, the elixir of life, and judicial as- trology ; and so among the people there was a rooted credence in witchcraft, incantations, and divinations.

Witches were to be found who, like the old witch of Murano, to whom Casanova was taken when a boy, 1 Brusoni, 11 carroccino alia moda, cit.

X, Comune, March 10, , March 10, Family education was no more effective than religious sentiment in the formation of character. Early in the Seicento Jesuitical hypocrisy began to infiltrate. Dur- ing the last two centuries of the Republic we note a great 1 Casanova, Mem. Venezia, , mentions and con- demns various vulgar errors ; for instance, the superstition about thirteen at table: Se in quela sacra e venerabil Cena Tredese i gera a tola, uno tradi ; Ma che v'importa e che m'importa a mi Che un Giuda avesse del morir la pena?

Guardeve pur da colpe e da pecai E ste tredese a tola degnamente, No ve smari, no abie timor de gnente, Che '1 numero morir no puol far mai. On the subject of spilling the salt he says: Sento un altro tintin de campanela Che no bisogna scomenzar impresa O far viazo, o far solene spesa Se de Venere e '1 zorno.

Varotari attacks other prejudices with equal acuteness and good sense. Venezia, January n, EDUCATION 5i activity in the publication of books of sage advice on education ; and all of them prove, if proof were needed, that good counsel avails little in unfavourable times and circumstances.

Colluraffi demonstrates that to the perfect education of a Venetian noble in comparison with which all other schemes of education are "as the point to the line, as the unit among numerals " go knowledge of foreign lan- guages, the habit of travel, study of law and mathe- matics, acquaintance with military discipline, even though it be true that the statesman has more need for eloquence than for arms.

A fine presence is of great value, and he who possesses it should carefully preserve it and not employ it in the service of his senses and his pleasures. He will not, therefore, pass his days in sloth, but will train his limbs to agility by appropriate exercises, such as running, jumping, wrestling, riding, the chase, football, but, above all, swimming, not only because it serves to strengthen the body, " but because the city stands in the sea and has dominion over the sea, and the nobleman will be called upon in the course of his career to cross the sea to fill various offices or to treat with other cities, and if he knows not how to swim there is manifest peril of his drowning.

In soliciting appointments let lim not exceed in promises ; let him charm, but not t' Jipt ; yield, but not humiliate himself ; acquire honours by merit, not by gold ; by desert, but not by banquets. But in the midst of these abstract 1 See Gicogna, Bibliografia, pp.

Antonino Colluraffi da Librizzi. Education became more and more a specious false- hood. In families where the vicious system was not combated by genuine affection and intimacy, 1 the par- ents had neither the ability nor the leisure to attend to their children. The father was immersed in worldly affairs, in the discharge of his public duties, in the splendour of his house and the claims of his rank ; the mother was devoted to her parties, the assemblies of the great world, her dress, and her lovers.

To nurse her children herself would have seemed to her to be imitating the people, and no sooner was her con- finement over than she returned to her wonted amuse- ments. A lady who has been the object of many attacks, Caterina Dolfin Tron, to whom we cannot deny generosity of heart and power of intellect, thus describes the education she received from her father Gian- nantonio Dolfin: Mi ricordo che i doveri di nostra santa Religione, e quelli tutti di Societa, voleva, che per principj sapessi, e che in forza d'una ben intesa riflessione ne restassi persuasa, per cosi formarmi un cuore piu resistente a tutte quelle seducenti passiom, che signoreggiano il nostro sesso.

It was not affection, but the rigorous observation of formal respect, that parents expected of their children ; each morning, with a profound bow, they were expected to kiss the hand of sior padre and siora madre, nor might they speak nor sit down without leave.

The dancing-master was a personage in the household ; he taught the children how to shake hands, when to smile, 1 Gaspare Gozzi, in his Sermone contro alia corruzione del costumi presenti op. Col cagnuolin, col bertuccin, col merlo, S'accomandano a' servi ; lor custodi Sono un tempo le fanti, indi i famigli Malcreati, id'ioti, e spesso brutti D'ogni magagna e d'ogni vizio infami.

Questi le prime, questi son le prime Lanterne che fan lume a' primi passi Delle vite novelle. Baretti Gli Italiani, cit. Society, for whom superfluities had become necessities, was represented by these curled and powdered manikins, who kissed the hands of the little girls with the same air as their fathers, grown-up babies, kissed the hands of the ladies.

The artifices of the stage have always been agreeable in an artificial society, and the theatre became as indispensable an adjunct to a patrician house as the family chapel ; and on the stage the children grew up to be consummate actors, or at least to pull the wires and speak the parts of the marionettes.

Arcangela Tarabotti, who behind the grating of her lonely cell contemplated the world and passed severe but often just judgment, speaking of the education given to women as a rule, addresses the following sharp reproof to fathers: In short, they never get beyond their a, 6, c, and learn even that imperfectly. As they grew up, they were severely guarded, and had to finish their education at home, 2 or 1 Galerana Baratotti Arcangela Tarabotti , La semplicita ingannata, p. Leyden, i 2 " Le fanciulle, o teneansi nei monasteri sino al loro collocamento, o custodivansi ad uso orientals nelle proprie famiglie.

Quindi non era loro permesso alcuna convivenza colla gioventti ; non accordavasi il ballo, se non con altre fanciulle nelle proprie case, e se nel carnovale conducevansi a qualche spettacolo nei teatri, sceglievansi i drammi piu castigati, si face- vano intervenire mascherate e si collocavano nelle logge le meno esposte.

In Goldoni's comedy, II padre difamiglia, two girls are introduced, one home-bred, the other brought up in a convent ; and in his Mtmoires Part II, Chap. XIII he describes the two methods of education: Mon intention 6toit de donner la preference a 1'education domestique, et le Public la comprit tres-bien et y donna son approbation. To- wards the close of the Republic girls' schools, under French mistresses, were opened in Venice ; the one kept by Madama Carlina 2 was the best known.

In the con- vent the girls were taught Avriting and arithmetic ; their amusements were concerts and theatricals; they were instructed in the ways of polite society, and were even made acquainted with the changes in the fashion. More attention was paid to making them expert needlewomen than to educating their minds.

Readings in Christian doctrine were continual, but the religious sentiment was fostered, not by the pure and simple maxims of the Gos- pel, but by tedious study of ascetic treatises, by recita- tion of the rosary, by representations of the Nativity, the lives of the Saints, the miracles of the Virgin.

Miserable, too, was the mental instruction of the boys ; from four to seven they learned to read from playing- cards on which were printed the letters of the alphabet. The Augus- tinians, the Capuchins, and the Carmelites undertook the education of the middle classes. In the Zitelle on the Giudecca citizens and poor were mixed together.

The Capuchin convent of the Concette at Castello received the poor nobles. Their school was opened in Few went to the University of Padua, as their parents dreaded the freedom of stu- dent life, which had become riotous and turbulent. In the last two centuries of the Re- public the students of Padua had grown prompt to riot, and notwithstand- ing the continual care of the authorities, mad escapades, especially at the expense of the Jews, were common, as also bloody brawls between the students and the townsfolk.

The police were obliged to enter the Uni- versity itself and the private lodgings of the students. In they forced a private house on the Piazza dei Signori to arrest some students, and blood was shed ; but the prudent government did not approve of excessive meas- ures; they punished the police with "gallows, galleys, and close prison," and put a commemorative tablet on the wall of the house, "a perpetua memoria e della pubblica giustizia e della pubblica costante protezione verso la Prediletta insigne Universita dello Studio di Padova.

Guido Antonio Albanese, public reader, " per ingiustissima ed iniquissima causa del promajori havuto nel suo dottorato. Foscarini i6i4 e Giov. Pisani , cit. Gela empeche fort les etrangers d'y aller etudier ; car on y est tellement contraint, qu'aussi-t6t que le soleil est couche", on n'oseroit plus sortir de la maison.

It is to be re- membered, however, that this thorough education awoke aspirations in the breasts of these beggared nobles which their future could not satisfy, and consequently bred in them discontent and envy of their richer peers. The class of the secretaries had more modest desires, and was well content with its social position ; it was composed of honest and well-educated men, who took a share in all the action of the Senate, the Ten, the In- quisitors, and the various Embassies, and gradually came to exercise a growing influence on the policy of the State.

The codex was published for Prince Albert Giovanelli by G. Levi, with notes, and contains: Benedetto fratelli Giovanelli fu di Gio. Paolo e loro permanenza nelle principals Corti scritte da uno di essi Gio. The middle class indulged no hostile feelings towards the aristocracy, and any little signs of envy were confined to a sort of rivalry in display, an emulation in luxury, which attempted to balance the pride in ancient lineage by the ostentatious vanity of new-gotten wealth.

The noble emulated blood-royal, the citizen copied the nobles, the merchant the citizen, and the shopkeeper the merchant. This was especially the case in Venice, where, to quote a foreigner, 3 the people were of a better character than in any other Italian city ; Montesquieu 4 is even more explicit, and calls them the best in the world.

The middle class and the people certainly did feel the corrupting influence and ex- ample of the great, but it reached the modest house- holds in a feebler and less pernicious form. Even Mutinelli, in his libel on the dead Republic, is forced to confess that the merchant and artisan classes lived a patriarchal life. On the habits of the Venetian people and on Venice in general during the eighteenth century Philippe Monnier has just published some pages full of poetry and affection in his Venise au XVIII siecle.

The rmteghi under their rude exterior hide kind hearts ; and it is not out of harshness that Leo- nardo the merchant keeps his wife and daughters in such close bonds, and forbids them to go to the theatre or to any entertainment, but because he is resolved to live in his own house " with scrupulous sobriety, as did his father.

In another play the ' ' honest maiden, " complaining that Venetian women were treated as a bundle of good-for-nothings, exclaims: In this country the girls have plenty of brains, and live by excellent rules, such as, perhaps, you would find in no other country in the world.

They never go out, except to go to Mass on Sundays, and then they are made to walk before their mothers or some old female relation. Avevano maniere si fattamente vezzeggiative, che disponevano facilmente gli animi in loro favore. Rimarcavansi per altro curiose e loquaci, e troppo dolci di cuore, ma dall' altro canto non poteansi comunemente tacciare di venalita.

Menego, in the Puta onorata, says: Everywhere was the love of order and of cleanliness, and an air of peace. The hanging lamps, with swaying lights, sent a dim ray through the kitchen, where the cheerful table was spread. The fable or the legend which the granny tells to the children burns up with the flames on the hearthstone. Rarely did a man of the people take his wife to the tavern; his daughters, never ; and except on feste, or the last days of Carni- val, the women stayed at home, 4 attending to their household work and singing among themselves or re- peating the simple prayers handed down from the past.

Erano perci6 piu religiose e contenute, e quan- tunque piu rozze e ignorauti delle educate, riuscivano assai migliori mogli e madri, e piu accurate amministratrici delle loro fainiglie. Here is an example: Pater noster pichenin, Varda in Ik, Su 1'altar de 1'oselin ; Yarda su quela finestrela: L'oselin al giera verto, Ghe xe 'na colomba bianca e bela ; E San Piero giera scoverto ; Cossa la ga in beco ; Varda in qua 'Na bronza de fogo benedeto ; FAMILY LIFE 61 On the occasion of a wedding or a baptism, the men were all dressed out with silver buckles on their shoes and gold chains hanging from their fobs ; the women with jewelry, rings, earrings, and gold necklaces martini.

The dialect, with its soft, flowing, and caressing accents, gives us glimpses of the fund of maternal affection which filled the hearts of the women of the people.

The mother, bending over the blond head and rosy cheeks of her little one, ad- dresses it as el mio leon de San Marco, el mio bombon, la mia alegrezza, el mio Jlor de primavera, viseto da Sant' Isepo, el mio pomelo, la mia grazieta, el mio ninin, la mia galinela, el mio Agnus Dei, etc.

Some have judged him too severely, painting him as disposed to trickery and cheating. Tuto '1 inondo iluminava ; Acqua de mar, pomolo de 1'altar: Iluminava Santa Maria Beataquell'amenachelapolimparar. D'Argens, too, in his Lettres Juiv. Fulin, Disc, sopra Em. On the day of a regatta the victorious champion's house was decked for the festival and echoed to the laughter and the noisy chatter of the assembled friends, who quaffed the wine and devoured the fish, and hugged and kissed each other, and praised the victor to the skies, when by the side of his father's portrait he hung his newly won flag ; for piety and family reverence were not yet things of the past.

With all his defects, neither few nor small, the gondolier was always the most char- acteristic example of that populace which alone, through- out the whole peninsula, preserved the type of genuine Italian life.

Certain aspects of life and certain forms of art seem grander, but it is a grandeur flaccid, inflated, and unhealthy. Thought and feeling perpetu- ally present a violent antithesis of good and evil ; and in Venice we find a hero like Lazzaro Mocenigo side by side with villains ready for any iniquity.

Some of the young spirits, suppressed by the mistaken rigour of their home upbringing, were no sooner free of the paternal subjection than they plunged into a life of disorder, 1 and certain writers affirm that in no city in the world were the young men so violent, so vicious, and so brutal as in Venice. Brusoni, in his ro- mances, sketches for us a great nobleman, Glisomiro, who in the fantastic and corrupt mind of the author appears as the ideal gentleman.

Glisomiro makes his bravi thrash the paramours of his mistress, carries off wives from their jealous husbands, and skips lightly from love-making with maidens to affairs with married wo- men. Many of them, though intrusted with high and delicate offices, offered a sad example of dissolute and riotous living, giving themselves up to sordid loves, selling their pro- tection for gold, leaving their debts unpaid 2 ; while 1 Albertazzi, Romanzierie romanzidel Cinquecento e del Seicento, pp.

The following petition to the Doge, presented by a creditor of a patrician, was discovered in the archives of the Comune di Salo ; it is undated, but certainly belongs to the seventeenth century. We give it in full: Moso io a compasione vedendo questo gientilomo pieno di miseria come lui mi diceva, mi risolsi di farli sichurta a un merchante qui di Bresa per li quatrocento duchati che ge li diede.

Lui promise la sua parola da gientilomo di pagarli per litere di cambio la mita per tuto zugno, 1'altra mita per tuto setenbre ; dil che non ha mai pagato niuna cosa a queli merchanti di Venetia dove si era obligate a pagare.

Ha poi causato che questo merchante qui di Bresa mi a mandate qui in Castello, per sbiri, citacione et protesti con il con- venirmi per giustitia. A tal che mi a fato eser favola di questa cita et manchator di parolla, che mai piu da poi ch'io son al mondo mi e intra- venuto tal cosa, pesandomi sino ne le visere per interese d'onore, il quale stimo piu che non fo la propria vita, ma andando burlando con sue litere di pagare dimane 1'altro, et ultimamente mi schrise per due man di sue litere che, subito che fuse stato aperto il bando, averia satisfato a quanto doveva, ma li dinari non sono stati pagati, dove che sforziatamente richoro ai piedi della Ser.

Je rencontrai un jour un Brave. Mais 1'etranger trouvoit cet ennemy arm 6 trop a 1'avantage, pour s'exposer a un combat si inegal. The decree referred to repeated the delibera- tions of the Ten on April i5, ; July 24, ; March 5, i5g3; July 27, ; December 9, i6o4; which expelled from the dominions of Venice " tutti li forestieri di aliena giuridittione, che seruono a particolari persone per braui et quelli che viuono senza essercitio, arte, o professione alcuna fuori che di braui.

Rampazzetto e per Ant. Un caso esecrando segul giovedi della passata settimana nella Ducale di S. Marco [essendo] stato in un angolo della chiesa ritrovato in atti venerei con una donna, Niccolo Balbi gentilhomo, detto per sopranome La Novizza del Broglio.

Arch, di Stato, Firenze, Lett, del Resid. Un nobile di casa Gritti, dubitando che per molti brutti misfatti fosse carcerato un tale, in compagnia del quale si presume che habbia fatto delle indignita, per non essere da esso scoperto, havendolo fatto chiamare, 1'ucisse di molte pugnalate. Niccolo Sacchetti, file 3oo6, fol. Though condemned more than once, he did not cease to defy the law ; he escaped the hands of the police and followed his career of insolence, violence, and cruelty.

With the help of his bravi and men of the sword, whom he kept not only in Venice hut at Noale, Mirano, and Mestre, he murdered and extorted ; he thrashed women and priests and paid his debts with musket-shots. One day his fancy was taken by a girl whom he saw dancing at a country fair. He had her carried off and kept her for two months in Venice as his mistress before he abandoned her ; the compassion of others found her a refuge at the Socorso.

On another occasion he forced the house of a Jew, named Galiman, and tried to break open his cupboards and boxes. The poor wretch strove to defend himself, but when his wife saw that Pesaro was going to set a huge mastiff at her husband, she hastily handed the keys to the ruffianly patrician, who helped himself to every- thing, and before leaving spat in the woman's face.

His insolence reached such a pitch that he would thrash any one who dared so much as to look at him. His most outrageous and notorious enterprise was that which brought sorrow on the home of the patrician Minotto. On February 28, , Pesaro and a party of his young companions, passing under the windows of Lucrezia Baglioni, mistress of the noble Paolo Lion, chaffed her, and left an impertinent message for her protector.

The same evening, at a wedding-party in Ga' Minotto, Pesaro recognised Lucrezia, masked, along with Lion ; he went up to them and blurted out S. Lion, restrain- ing his anger, moved away, declaring that this was neither the time nor the place to make a scene ; but Pesaro, leaving the Minotto palace, went in search of his colleagues in riot and ribaldry, among them the patrician Camillo Trevisan, who was lying at the Ognis- santi in the house of his mistress Camilla Gocchia.

Pesaro made Trevisan rise and dress, calling out to him, "Come on; I mean to have a spree. They mounted the stairs and went for Lucrezia, whom they handled roughly, while they killed Lion. Then Pesaro and his gang, with the blood-madness upon them, tore through the apartments, their drawn swords in their hands, ' ' and many of the wedding-guests, men as well as women, masked or unmasked, were wounded or injured ; some defended their wives, and some were lucky in wearing shirts of mail beneath their clothes, and so escaped.

Pesaro and his crew had put out the lights, all but a single torch, which the bridegroom held in one hand, while with the other he grasped a chair to protect the bride, who was wearing pearls and jewels of great value. All who could, escaped pell- mell down the staircase.

There remained only one foreigner, a soldier, who, after parrying many a lunge at himself and the bridegroom, was wounded at last, having three fingers cut off. The ruffians kept crying, 'Well, now that we 've begun, let 's go through with it thoroughly ; let 's have the bride's pearls ' "; so runs the wording of the sentence against them, published on April 3, iGoi.

The 1 We have the sentence against Pesaro's companions, among them a Gahriele Morosini. In the magnificent home of the Grimani at Santa Maria Formosa the Academy of the Animosi were wont to hold a meeting three or four times a year.

At these meetings there was a concert, and as many as four hundred guests would assemble. On one occasion, when the Duke of Mirandola and other foreign princes were present, the ladies took their places in high-backed arm-chairs, and the men, so as not to interrupt the view, sat on low stools, or on the carpet at their feet. But one of the masked gentlemen chose to seat himself on the arm of the chair occupied by a very beautiful lady from Turin, who resented the liberty and began to complain, where- upon the masque impertinently bent down and stared at her breast.

The lady of the house, who was hard by, rose and said, " Masque, behave yourself I " The insolent fellow replied, " What I do I 've a right to do. The latter drew a pistol and snapped the lock, but luckily it missed fire.

In an instant swords and daggers were flashing, and Fos- carini with one hand tore the mask from the offend- er's face, while with the other he aimed a blow with his stiletto ; but in that second he recognised young Vincenzo Michiel, nephew of his sister, and his arm fell. Michiel was dragged out of the hall and subsequently banished, though later on he obtained pardon.

Apostolo Zeno tratte dalla viva voce di lui by Marco Forcellini, p. Seetoo Battagia, Delle Accademie Venez. ISiccolo Sacchetti writes, June 26, Manners were not precisely improved, but the passions were less tempestuous. With the exception of such crimes as disgrace even the most civilised populations at all times and in all places, the violence and in- solence of the young men were now reduced to the simple swagger and banter which have always been the delight of irresponsible youth.

A foreigner writing in the middle of the eighteenth century says: Final- mente, fattisi cogniti i mascherati per saper 1'uno e 1'altro di chidoversi guar- dare, il Collegio la mattina seguente messe la mano nell' accomodamento, il qual segui il giorno appresso. On February 26, , del Teglia writes: Ghrisostotno tra un gentiluomo della Patria ed un cavaliere mantovano del seguito dell' Altezza di Mantova; ma tutto rest6 incontanente sedato colla scambievole dichiarazione di non haver 1'uno conosciuto 1'altro, ambedue mascherati.

Again del Teglia writes, on June 6, On February 3, , del Teglia writes: Some- times, and more especially on the mainland, they would degenerate into actual brawls with the sword ; they usually arose over some question of precedence, of rank, of etiquette, of left or right hand, of free passage or ob- struction, and such like inanities, which seemed serious enough to call for government interference. All printed by Antonio Pinelli, stampator ducale.

Cittk di Castello, The Doge wrote to the Podesta Soranzo and to Captain Sanudo to put a stop to such a scandal, "which might bring a diminution of that rank and dignity which it has seemed good to the Senate to bestow on one rather than on another of its subjects.

But on this point of honour there was a double feeling, swagger on the one hand and servility on the other, and the science of chivalry had degen- erated into the merest casuistry. On April 29, , the Ten renewed their threats against those who sent, carried, or accepted challenges. In the Venetian army the rule laid down by Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, that an officer could not refuse to cross swords with a simple soldier, because the fact of being a soldier conferred nobility, generally prevailed.

Attendolo held that the second quality which conferred nobility was learning, especially in the law, owing to its affinity with arms. Wealth too was recognised as giving the right to take the field. An insult was efficacious during a year. The insulted was styled the atlore; the in- sulter, reo ; the insulted was expected to follow ilforo del reo.

The injured was admitted to the honours of a duel, even if inferior in rank ; the insulter must always be equal or superior. The insulter having contestata la querela was obbligato di fatto and could not refuse satisfaction. Alciato, however, reserved freedom of action, and his opinion at that time prevailed. The challenge was sent in writing, by messenger ; it usually named a term within which it must be accepted, usually forty -days, and appointed a second to receive the reply. If the challenged party could not be found, the chal- lenge was fastened to his door, and this was held equivalent to citation.

The citation must contain the evidence of those who were witnesses of the insult. As an example of the formulas in use in the case of retraction we will quote the satisfaction in words given by an ecclesiastical dignitary to a Venetian patrician: Pentito e olente, adunque la supplico a perdonarmi e ricevermi nella sua bona gratia.

Can a duel heal an affront? Can a challenge restore a damaged character? All prejudice, error, folly. Apostoli, between two German officers of Marshal Schulemberg's army. Each ran the other through, and both died on their way to the hospital. Town talk was also set agoing by the quarrel between the young noble- men Emilio Arnaldi and Alvise Barzizza, who, on Jan- uary 22, , fought a duel on the Giudecca in which Arnaldi was slightly wounded.

But on the whole the Venetians preferred to arrange their disputes rather than to fight, even if the arrangement were not always to their credit. Angelo Emo, who later in life revived the fortunes of Venice on the sea, was serving on board ship at Corfu in ; in a coffee house high words passed between him and another naval officer, and in the heat of his twenty-two years Emo dashed his bonnet in the other's face; without retorting the other rose and left the place, whereupon Emo followed him and offered satisfaction, but found his adversary little disposed that 1 Goldoni, Le femmine puntigliose, Act III, sc.

There was talk of a challenge, but the affair was arranged by the reconciliation of the parties. The Venetians were masters of the art, and shared with their colleagues of Bologna the sound principles of fencing known as Bolognese or Venetian. After Fabris, the Venetian school can boast a Nicoletto Giganti, a fruitful inno- vator in the art of arms, 3 Francesco Alfieri, 4 of the Delia Academy in Padua, 5 and Bondi di Mazo, 6 who published in a treatise which contains plates admirably representing the movements and the thrusts at that time in vogue in Venice.

Gelli, in his Bibliografia universale della scherma Firenze, Nicolai, , dedicates some pages to the praise of Fabris and his work. Fabris died in , and in Padua raised a monument to his honour in the Santo. Giganti was the first to teach the advance with the right foot in the attack ; he also invented the lunge, the counter parry, the cavaziane, the controcavazione, and the cut.

It was called Filotima because the members were expected to be inspired by a love of glory and of honour. Its chief object was practice in the use of arms. Its members were required to prove not only nobility of blood but purity of manners. Una Accademia cavalleresca di Verona. Per nozze Pellegrini-De Roner.

Venezia, i6g4- 7 Gelli, Bibliografia, cit. Nor must we forget that in the midst of this general effeminacy there were to be found young nobles of character and energy who did not shrink from the exercise of their muscles. The instances are rare, but we hear of a young gentleman, Ferigo Galbo, who put on a mask and took part in bull-baiting ; or, again, of Michelangiolo Lin, a powerful oarsman and a clever player at ball.

For example, the Senator Almoro Tiepolo one evening, when leaving his gondola, tripped in his long robe and all but fell into the water. His gondolier, to save his master, dropped his oar, which fell on Tiepolo's arm and broke it.

The gondolier was not aware of what had occurred, and Tiepolo never opened his lips, but passed upstairs to his room, and there he merely said to his valet, who came to undress 1 The adventures of Giacomo Borgoloco are curious. Having killed in self-defence a baker in the Campo San Giacomo dall' Orio, he was banished and went to Vienna, where the Emperor Leopold made him maitre d'armcs to his two sons Joseph and Charles.

In an assault at arms before the two young princes Borgoloco defeated his master, by name Giambattista, whose rage and disgust were so great that he challenged his late pupil to a duel. But Borgoloco had no wish to cross swords with his old master, and to escape from the difficulty he fled back to Venice, where the Foscari took him under their protection. He collected a sum of seven hundred ducats and raised troops for the service of the State, and thus, as was then the custom, secured the repeal of his sentence.

Against the lurid background of the Seicento certain types, which still retain some tincture of the antique vigour common to the race, stand out in marked con- tours in spite of their brutality and swagger. The next century only gives us the profiles of fops, "with flaccid limbs and muscles of cotton wool," as Gaspare Gozzi says. In certain saloons you would find patrician men, and even women, mingling in a strange herd of the populace, sharpers, cutpurses, priests, Jews, and harlots, 3 who, after losing their last ducat, would stake their rings, watches, chatelaines, and even their clothes.

Wanton al paese delle Scimie, II, i3o. ISessun voleva essere inferiore nelT abito e nel gioco. II Panfil dominava in ogni angolo. Le povere signore, per pagar e continuar a divertirsi, erano ridotte a divertir gli altri quasi palesamente.

Talora si perdono a decine di migliaia di scudi e due Dame in diverse congiunture hanno perduto piu di ottanta mille scudi, onde i loro mariti per stimolo di onore, benche non tenuti, soddis- fecero al debito doloroso. Una donna nobile ridotta agli estremi dal giuoco, ebbe una volta coraggio di levarsi la cuffia, dopo aver perduto il denaro, e perderla sopra un punto di Bassetta. Decked out, powdered and per- fumed, they would study every pose in the glass, the way to sit down, the way to walk, the way to bow.

They looked like the little porcelain figures with which their cabinets were crowded. The book-shelves held all that was suggestive in the world of letters, love tales, stories of gallantry, lewd verses adorned with obscene woodcuts. Dolcetti, Le bische e il giuoco d'azzardo a Ven. A Gontarini in writes to his brother that a German student on leaving Padua had handed him a card with his name and arms on it. In the next century the use of visiting-cards became general.

The earliest cards were illumi- nated ; then came painting in sepia, and lastly engraving. Spanish gallantry of the Seicento degenerated into Italian serventismo, and before the century was out the cavaliere servente was transformed into the cicisbeo, 3 whose presence was even recognised in marriage contracts, where a clause would state that the lady was " served by several admirers.

They usually have either some classical design, or a border of flowers, or some mythological subject. Among others is one belonging to the last Doge, Lodovico Manin ; it has a naked, sleeping Adonis, with two doves billing on a rock near an oak tree.

Bastian Mocenigo, che giro per tutta la citta visitando con biglietto tutte le famiglie parent! Francesco Mascarini, who ended on the gallows for having falsely de- nounced a priest, was famous as an obscene painter of snuff-boxes and fans.

Gozzi, in the Gazzetta Veneta op. Goldoni, in his Vedova scaltra Act II, sc. See Moroni, I Minuetti, p. One of Goldoni's characters says: When cicisbeism did not change into a guilty liaison, it remained a degenerate form of sentimentality, a hybrid and fictitious mixture of sensual pleasure and platonic affection, a sort of moralised depravity, more repugnant than bold and downright viciousness. Side by side with the cicisbeo we find the worldly little Abbe, all made up, perfumed, and powdered.

Noi vogliamo restare umane. Verso la manifestazione del 26 novembre a Roma contro la violenza maschile sulle donne. Giornata internazionale contro la violenza sulle donne 25 novembre Con Monti in Europa. Si rischia di tornare alle urne. Grecia, grande vittoria e incertezze Grecia: La bandiera della diversità che ci rende più uniti La civiltà di Parigi La disoccupazione in Europa La Fortezza dei Tartari La Grecia che diventa noi La Marea Bianca ha vinto La nostra casa non diventi un museo La repressione delle manifestazioni in Egitto deve cessare.

Non sperate che vacilleremo! Carta acquisti sperimentale Non si potrà più protestare Structures of Patriarchal Violence against Women: Reddito minimo garantito e questione di livelli di competenza interna Stato-Regioni. I progetti internazionali di IFE Europa 2: I progetti internazionali di IFE Europa 1: Generazione sbucciata Giocare non è mai neutro: Frida Khalo, storia di una rivoluzionaria.

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Crocifisso, un paese a laicità limitata Donne di tutto il mondo unitevi. Le nuove vite del femminismo Genova per noi Golden lady e Omsa: Il divino è fuori scena Il posto delle donne è il mondo intero Il potere del"metoo" americano.

E noi italiane dove siamo rimaste? Non ho fatto niente" "Europa che fare? Aspetti politici e campagne tematiche. Linee programmatiche per la crescita della produttività e della competitività in Italia Liquidazione coatta amministrativa del Manifesto: Perchè gli italiani votano per Berlusconi? Per le donne qualcosa é cambiato. Pourquoi les hommes ne se voilent pas?

Report del Seminario "Donne nella crisi ed oltre la crisi", Lecce 11 e 12 ottobre Ritorno dal futuro: Sur le soulèvement tunisien et la transition démocratique Vecchia, sono vecchia. Quelle parole che la sinistra deve riscoprire Donald Trump. Spirito, natura e ragione. Ecco il credo di un laico Un nuovo soggetto politico.

gay porn francais escort girl versaille In an instant swords and daggers were flashing, and Fos- carini with one hand tore the mask from the offend- er's face, while with the other he aimed a blow with his stiletto ; but in that second he recognised young Vincenzo Michiel, nephew of his sister, and his arm fell. Il divino è fuori scena Il posto delle donne è il mondo intero Il potere del"metoo" americano. A spirit of gaiety breathes from every piece of furniture ; little tables carved with amorini and wreaths ; coffers and wardrobes painted with flowers, birds, and ara- besques ; chairs and sofas with fantastic decoration and play of ornament, perhaps a trifle trivial, but still full of grace. Few went to the University of Padua, as their parents dreaded the freedom of stu- dent life, which had become riotous and turbulent, gay porn francais escort girl versaille. But the video amatrice francaise escort chambéry of this great master degenerated, in his followers and imitators, into exaggerated audacity, though even so their work was not lacking in a certain grandiosity and grace.

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